Processing and use of beeswax
In a sense the combs in a honey bee nest are an extension of the bees that made them and it is really the bees and combs together that constitute the colony. In fact, the average honey bee worker spends 95% of her life on the combs in the hive. The combs are built to be multi-purpose in the sense that they can be used for both brood and storage (honey and pollen). They are also the place where all the exchange of information that enables the colony to control its activity takes place. Because this occurs in the dark, communication is through chemical signals (pheromones), trophallaxis and vibration signals. The combs provide an ideal forum where this can take place. The architectural rules that the bees follow when constructing their nest have been understood since the early 19th century and the efficient working of a moveable frame hive depends on the beekeeper complying with these rules. An understanding of bee-space is essential so that the bees can build combs that meet both their own needs and those of the beekeeper. A colony will only draw combs when and where they have an immediate use for them and the resources to make new wax. Successful comb management requires the beekeeper to understand all these factors.
This title details the making and decorating of flat sheets of wax for petals and leaves; of roses, crocuses, and other wax foundation flowers. “I have been making wax flowers for a long time and I must say that I have really enjoyed it. I hope you will too ” Elizabeth Duffin
The purpose of this text is to introduce beekeepers, people considering keeping bees and those interested in processing and marketing, to the large diversity of products this can be derived from beekeeping for income generation. The publication describes each category of products (Including cosmetics) derived from basic bee products such as honey, pollen, wax, propolis, royal jelly, venom and adult and larval honeybees; for each category it provides information about history, product quality and marketing and a few selected recipes. A detailed bibliography, a list of equipment suppliers, equivalents for conversion of weights and Codex Allimentarius standards for honey are given In the annexes.
“Instead of dirt and poison we have rather chosen to fill our hives with honey and wax; thus furnishing mankind with the two noblest of things, which are sweetness and light.” Mindful of Swift’s dictum, this compilation is offered as an exhaustive coverage of the literature (ancient to modern) on the synthesis and secretion of beeswax, its elaboration into combs, and the factors that bear on the execution of these processes by honeybees. To codify any aspects of the biology of an animal of agricultural importance is to sift through myriad observations and experiments, centuries old, that come down to us enshrouded in the folk literature. The author has endeavoured not to over-interpret data and to allow the works to speak for themselves. He has also tried to indicate some of the more obvious gaps in our knowledge of honeybees in relation to wax and to suggest some directions as to where we might proceed, aided by discoveries made on other animals and plants.
Jenny has been Beekeeping with husband Sid for nearly 30 years. Both of them have been involved with the Taunton and District Division of Beekeepers in Somerset. She got interested in wax after a talk at the local division. She has done talks to other divisions and held workshops in making of candles. She was awarded the West Country Honey Farms rose bowl in 2011. She was made President of the Taunton Beekeepers in 2013. This publication includes information on:
1. Salvaging Wax.
2. Making Candles with Silicone Moulds .
3. Making Candles with Rubber Moulds.
4. Care of Rubber Moulds.
5. Making Rolled Candles.
6. Having fun with Rolled Candle.
7. Dipped Candles.
For over 70 years Wedmore’s Manual has been the reference book of choice for answers to all practical beekeeping questions. This updated reprint, with contributions from an eminent panel of contributors is one that all serious beekeeper should have on their bookshelf.
Create Natural beeswax products – candles, soap, balms, salves and home decor for health and home.
‘THIS IS THE BOOK I’ve been waiting thirty years for. Excellent instructions. Bountiful information. Beautifully done’. – Kim Flotsam, Editor Bee Culture Magazine.
In ‘Beauty and the Bees’, Dr Sara J Robb explains how honey, beeswax, and propolis can be used to decrease the signs of ageing. Bee products, in particular honey, are valuable as dietary supplements, as functional foods, in home remedies and in cosmetics. Substituting some of the sugar, in your diet, with honey will significantly increase your physiological levels of antioxidants and can slow the ageing process. Honey antioxidants correlate with honey colour; the darker the colour of honey, the higher the age defying antioxidants. The colour scale below shows the colours of honey, which can be used to estimate the levels of antioxidants. If you choose a dark honey, such as heather, ivy or buckwheat, you can increase the amount of antioxidants in your diet. As well as increasing antioxidants in food, bee products have had a place through history in remedies and cosmetics. Beeswax, propolis and honey have medicinal qualities that end themselves to home remedies and cosmetics. Beauty and the Bees begins with an introduction, by nutritionist Dr Domingo J. Piñero, discussing the importance of honey as a functional food. High antioxidant honey recipes are provided, including sweet and savoury honey recipes, honey baked goods and confections. Beauty and the Bees also contains recipes for beeswax anti-ageing creams, antioxidant honey soaps and Aunt Bea’s Remedies.
This booklet deals exclusively with beeswax – how to melt and refine it, its special properties as a wax, how to mould it, and the various ways it can be used for candle making. I have not discussed mineral or other waxes and their uses, as there already exists a considerable amount of literature on these, nor have I discussed candle making generally.All of these ideas suggested here have grown from my own experience as a beekeeper and candle maker over the past several decades. Some of them appeared in my “Bee Talks” in Gleaning in Bee Culture, published by A. I. Root Company, Medina, Ohio, in 1972 and 1973. This booklet greatly expands upon the methods described there, however, and I have also been able to incorporate here many more pictures. I express my thanks to the editors of Gleanings for permission to reproduce some of that material here.